Carbonic diamide ؛ Carbamide ؛ Carbonyl diamide
Urea or Carbamide is an organic Compound with CO(NH2)2 chemical structure.
Because of the hydrogen bonding with H2O Molecules, Urea can be solved in water as a protic solvent easily.
Also we can consider urea as a great solvent for organic compounds because of the this hydrogen bonding between its Molecules.
So because of this properties, urea can be used in various fields( eg: Separation of mixtures, Separation of hydrocarbons).
Physical and chemical properties
- 132/7 ˚C
- It decomposes before boiling
- Melting point:
- Boiling point:
- HS Code:
- E number:
- PubChem CID:
- Crystal or crystalline white powder
- 60.07 gr/mol
- Almost odorless, salty taste, relatively non-toxic
- soluble in water and ethanol
- 1/323 g/cm3
- Material shape:
- Chemical formula:
- Molecular weight:
- physical characterisitcs:
:How to produce
Natural and synthetic urea
Urea can be out com of amino acids or ammonia Oxidation in in the body of many living organisms.
For the first time French chemist” Hilaire Rouelle” discover urea .
In 1828 (1824), the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler, during an unsuccessful attempt to prepare ammonium cyanate, obtained urea when he added ammonium chloride to silver isocyanate:
AgNCO + NH4Cl → (NH2)2 CO + AgCl
Other methods of producing urea:
NH3+CO2 ⇌ H2N-COONH4
H2N-COONH4 ⇌ (NH2)2CO+H2O
NC _O_ NH4 → NCOH + NH3 → NH=C(OH)NH2 → اUrea
(Isocyanic acid) NH=C=O + NH3 → Urea
Calcium cyanamide hydrolysis method(NCNCa):
NC-NCa + H2O → O=C(ONH4)NH2 → water + H2O
Safety and important points
Urea in the vicinity of dichloromaleic anhydride and sodium chloride has the potential to form the explosive substance dichloromaleide.
Thermal oxidation of urea causes the decomposition of urea and the possible production of toxic nitrogen oxide gas, ammonia, biurea and siaphoric acid.
Urea reacts with calcium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite and produces the explosive substance nitrogen trichloride.
The presence of urea in the vicinity of substances such as sodium nitrite (NaNO2, gallium perchloride, strong oxidizing substances permanganate, dichloromite, nitrate and chlorine, phosphate pentachloride (P2CI5), nitrosyl perchlorite (CINO5), titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and chromyl chloride is not correct.
In general, urea is used in agriculture, industry, and animal husbandry sectors, the most of which is about 90% of urea production in the world is allocated to agriculture and 10% to industry. Urea is also used as an additive in animal feed.
Urea in the agricultural sector
Urea is widely used in agriculture and it is referred to by different names such as white fertilizer, sugar fertilizer, etc. in agricultural communities. This fertilizer is actually one of the types of nitrogen fertilizers and is used all over the world as one of the most widely used and of course the cheapest chemical fertilizers that supply nitrogen.
Urea in the industrial sector
Urea is used in the industrial sector in the following industries:
- cosmetic industries
- medicine (DIURETIC),
- plastic industries
- production of all kinds of filters…
- Granular urea
- ureaAgriculture (Coated)
- Industerial (Uncoated-Adbule)
Classification of urea
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